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                                                                                                                                                  2019年硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题+答案

                                                                                                                                                  时间: 2018-12-23 作者:医学考研网 点击:

                                                                                                                                                  Section I  Use of English

                                                                                                                                                  Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
                                                                                                                                                      Today we live in a world where GPS systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones,  1  of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. But phones   2   on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize.  3  you get lost without a phone or a compass and you  4  can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate  5  to civilization. one of which is to follow the land.
                                                                                                                                                      When you find yourself well  6  a trail but not in a completely  7  area, you have to answer two questions: which  8  is downhill, in this particular area? And where is the nearest water source? Humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water.  9  ,if you head downhill, and follow any H2O you find, you should  10  see signs of people.
                                                                                                                                                      If you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be  11  how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.
                                                                                                                                                      Another  12  :Climb high and look for signs of human habitation.  13  , even in dense forest, you should be able to  14  gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve  15  the woods. Head toward these  16  to find a way out. At night, scan the horizon for  17  light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.
                                                                                                                                                        18  ,assuming you're lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the  19  we leave on the landscape. Trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can  20  you to civilization.
                                                                                                                                                  1. [A] Some [B] Most [C] Few [D] All
                                                                                                                                                  2. [A] put [B] take [C] run [D] come
                                                                                                                                                  3. [A] Since  [B] If [C] Though [D] Until
                                                                                                                                                  4. [A] formally [B] relatively [C] gradually [D] literally
                                                                                                                                                  5. [A] back [B] next [C] around [D] away
                                                                                                                                                  6. [A] onto [B] off [C] across [D] alone
                                                                                                                                                  7. [A] unattractive [B] uncrowded [C] unchanged [D] unfamiliar
                                                                                                                                                  8. [A] site [B] point [C] way [D] place
                                                                                                                                                  9.[A] So [B] Yet [C] Instead [D] Besides
                                                                                                                                                  10. [A] immediately [B] intentionally [C] unexpectedly [D] eventually
                                                                                                                                                  11.[A] surprised [B] annoyed [C] frightened [D] confused
                                                                                                                                                  12. [A] problem [B] option [C] view [D] result
                                                                                                                                                  13. [A] Above all [B] In contrast [C] On average [D] For example
                                                                                                                                                  14. [A] bridge [B] avoid [C] spot [D] separate
                                                                                                                                                  15. [A] form [B] through [C] beyond [D] under
                                                                                                                                                  16. [A] posts [B] links [C] shades [D] breaks
                                                                                                                                                  17. [A] artificial [B] mysterious [C] hidden [D] limited
                                                                                                                                                  18. [A] Finally [B] Consequently [C] Incidentally [D] Generally
                                                                                                                                                  19. [A] memories [B] marks [C] notes [D] belongings
                                                                                                                                                  20. [A] restrict [B] adopt [C] lead [D] expose
                                                                                                                                                  参考答案:
                                                                                                                                                  (1) Few
                                                                                                                                                  (2) run
                                                                                                                                                  (3) If
                                                                                                                                                  (4) literally   adv. 照字面地;逐字地;不夸张地;正确地;简直
                                                                                                                                                  (5) back
                                                                                                                                                  (6) off
                                                                                                                                                  (7) unfamiliar
                                                                                                                                                  (8) way
                                                                                                                                                  (9) So
                                                                                                                                                  (10) eventually
                                                                                                                                                  (11) surprised
                                                                                                                                                  (12) option
                                                                                                                                                  (13) For example
                                                                                                                                                  (14) spot
                                                                                                                                                  (15) through
                                                                                                                                                  (16) breaks
                                                                                                                                                  (17) artificial
                                                                                                                                                  (18) Finally
                                                                                                                                                  (19) marks
                                                                                                                                                  (20) lead
                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                  Section II  Reading Comprehension
                                                                                                                                                  Part A
                                                                                                                                                  Directions: Read the following four texts, Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
                                                                                                                                                  Text I
                                                                                                                                                      Financial regulators in Britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks.Starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. The main purpose of this "clawback "rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution, Yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but by all corporations to build a stronger economy for future generations.
                                                                                                                                                      “Short-termism " or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies says the Bank of England’s top economist. Andrew Haldane. He quotes a gaint of classical economics, Alfred Marshall in describing this financial impatience as acting like "Children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once "rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.
                                                                                                                                                      The average time for holding a stock in both the United States and Britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. Transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. This has been dubbed "quarterly capitalism”.
                                                                                                                                                  In addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shorters attention spans in financial markets. “There seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,”said Commissioner Daniel Gallagher of the US Securities and Exchange Commission in a speech this week.
                                                                                                                                                      In the US, the Sarbanes-Oxley Acl of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short- termism.” In its latest survey of CEO pay, The Wall Street Journal finds that “a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.
                                                                                                                                                      Much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions, In France, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.
                                                                                                                                                      Within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. Britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the lone term.
                                                                                                                                                  21. According to Paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. enhance bankers' sense of responsibility
                                                                                                                                                  B. help corporations achieve larger profits
                                                                                                                                                  C. build a new system of financial regulation
                                                                                                                                                  D. guarantee the bonuses of top executives
                                                                                                                                                  22. Alfred Marshall is quoted to indicate ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. the conditions for generating quick profits
                                                                                                                                                  B. Governments’ impatience in decision-making
                                                                                                                                                  C. the solid structure of publicly traded companies
                                                                                                                                                  D. “short-termism" in economic activities
                                                                                                                                                  23. It is argued that tie influence of transient investment om public companies cam be ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. indirect B. adverse
                                                                                                                                                  C. minimal D. temporary
                                                                                                                                                  24. The US and France examples and used to illustrate ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. the obstacles to preventing "short-termism”
                                                                                                                                                  B. the significance of long-term thinking.
                                                                                                                                                  C. the approaches to promoting "long-termism”.
                                                                                                                                                  D. the prevalence of short-term thinking
                                                                                                                                                  25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
                                                                                                                                                  A. Failure of Quarterly Capitalism
                                                                                                                                                  B. Patience as a Corporate Virtue
                                                                                                                                                  C. Decisiveness Required of Top Executives
                                                                                                                                                  D. Frustration of Risk-taking Bankers
                                                                                                                                                  参考答案:ADBCB
                                                                                                                                                  Text 2
                                                                                                                                                      Grade inflation—the gradual increase in average GPAs (grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. But another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise GPAs.
                                                                                                                                                      Grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student's overall GPA.
                                                                                                                                                      The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their gradation rates. When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. But now most colleges, save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
                                                                                                                                                      College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incoming a big penalty. "Untimely,” said Jack Miner, Ohio State University’s registrar, "we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows than to graduate on time”.
                                                                                                                                                      That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. For
                                                                                                                                                  public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as
                                                                                                                                                  graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. And anything that raises GPAs will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.
                                                                                                                                                      Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers' expectations for higher education. Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead to a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out gradates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. On this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.
                                                                                                                                                  26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?
                                                                                                                                                  A. The change of course catalogs.
                                                                                                                                                  B. Students' indifference to GPAs.
                                                                                                                                                  C. Colleges' neglect of GPAs.
                                                                                                                                                  D. The influence of consumer culture.
                                                                                                                                                  27. What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
                                                                                                                                                  A. To help freshmen adapt to college learning.
                                                                                                                                                  B. To maintain colleges' graduation rates.
                                                                                                                                                  C. To prepare graduates for a challenging future.
                                                                                                                                                  D. To increase universities’ income from tuition.
                                                                                                                                                  28. According to Paragraph 5, grade forgiveness enables colleges to ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. obtain more financial support.
                                                                                                                                                  B. boost their student enrollments.
                                                                                                                                                  C. improve their teaching quality.
                                                                                                                                                  D. meet local governments needs.
                                                                                                                                                  29. What does the phrase"to be aligned"(Line 5, Para. 6)most probably mean?
                                                                                                                                                  A. To counterbalance each other.
                                                                                                                                                  B. To complement each other.
                                                                                                                                                  C. To be identical with each other.
                                                                                                                                                  D. To be contradictory to each other.
                                                                                                                                                  30. The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. assessing its feasibility.
                                                                                                                                                  B. analyzing the causes behind it.
                                                                                                                                                  C. comparing different views on it.
                                                                                                                                                  D. listing its long-run effects.
                                                                                                                                                  参考答案:D,A,A,C,B
                                                                                                                                                  Text 3
                                                                                                                                                      This year marks exactly two centuries since the publication of Frankenstein; or The Modem Prometheus, by Mary Shelley. Even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.
                                                                                                                                                      Today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (Al) raises fundamental questions: What is intelligence, identity, or consciousness? What makes humans humans?
                                                                                                                                                      What is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. Yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi TV series such as “Westworld” and “Hummans”.
                                                                                                                                                      Just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says David Eagleman. a Stanford University neuroscientist, “We are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousness actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”
                                                                                                                                                      But that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving AI aren’t at hand. The coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. Human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. Their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. AI “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans, And to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.
                                                                                                                                                      Whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes Tan Kiat How, chief executive of a Singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of Al. Along with Singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. Britain is setting up a data ethics center. India released its AI ethics strategy this spring.
                                                                                                                                                      On June 7 Google pledged not to “design or deploy AI” that would cause “overall harm” or to develop AI-directed weapons or use AI for surveillance that would violate international norms. It also pledged not to deploy AI whose use would violate international laws or human rights.
                                                                                                                                                      While the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. So does the idea that decisions made by AI systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.
                                                                                                                                                      To put it another way: How can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? Only then will they be useful servants and not Frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.
                                                                                                                                                  31. Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein is mentioned because it _______.
                                                                                                                                                  A. fascinates AI scientists all over the world
                                                                                                                                                  B. has remained popular for as long as 200 years
                                                                                                                                                  C. involves some concerns raised by AI today.
                                                                                                                                                  D. has sparked serious ethical controversies
                                                                                                                                                  32. In David Eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness _______.
                                                                                                                                                  A. helps explain artificial intelligence.
                                                                                                                                                  B. can be misleading to robot making
                                                                                                                                                  C. inspires popular sci-fi TV series
                                                                                                                                                  D. is too limited for us to reproduce it
                                                                                                                                                  33. The solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. can hardly ever be found
                                                                                                                                                  B. is still beyond our capacity.
                                                                                                                                                  C. causes little public concern
                                                                                                                                                  D. has aroused much curiosity
                                                                                                                                                  34. The authors attitude toward Google’s pledges is one of ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. affirmation B. skepticism
                                                                                                                                                  C. contempt D. respect
                                                                                                                                                  35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
                                                                                                                                                  A. AI’s Future: In the Hands of Ted Giants
                                                                                                                                                  B. Frankenstein, the Novel Predicting the Age of AI
                                                                                                                                                  C. The Conscience of AI: Complex But Inevitable
                                                                                                                                                  D. A hall Be Killers Once Out of Control
                                                                                                                                                  参考答案:CDBAB
                                                                                                                                                  Text 4
                                                                                                                                                      States will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases
                                                                                                                                                  under a Supreme Court decision Thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big
                                                                                                                                                  financial win for states.
                                                                                                                                                      The Supreme Court’s opinion Thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states
                                                                                                                                                  said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. The decisions made it more difficult for
                                                                                                                                                  states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.
                                                                                                                                                      The cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didn't have to collect sales tax for the state. Customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn't realize they owed it and few paid.
                                                                                                                                                       Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. "Each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the States, "he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices Kennedy wrote that the rule "limited states ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”
                                                                                                                                                       The ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. Now, rivals will be charging sales tax where they
                                                                                                                                                  Hadn’t before. Big chains have been collecting sales aw nationwide because they typically have
                                                                                                                                                  physicalstoresinwhateverstateapurchaseisbeingshippedtoAmazon.com,with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party sellers who use the site don’t have to.
                                                                                                                                                      Until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states Sellers that use eBay and Etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also haven been collecting sales tax nationwide. Under the ruling Thursday, states can pass laws requiring out-of-state sellers to collect the state’s sales tax from customers and send it to the state.
                                                                                                                                                      Retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. The losers, said retail analyst Neil Saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones. Those retailers may face headaches complying with various state sales tax laws. The
                                                                                                                                                  Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council advocacy group said in a statement, “Small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision,”
                                                                                                                                                  36. The Supreme Court decision Thursday will ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. Dette business’ relations with states
                                                                                                                                                  B. put most online business in a dilemma
                                                                                                                                                  C. make more online shoppers pay sales tax
                                                                                                                                                  D. force some states to cut sales tax
                                                                                                                                                  37. It can be learned from paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. have led to the dominance of e-commerce
                                                                                                                                                  B. have cost consumers a lot over the years
                                                                                                                                                  C. were widely criticized by online purchases
                                                                                                                                                  D. were considered unfavorable by states
                                                                                                                                                  38. According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, the physical presence rule has ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. hindered economic development
                                                                                                                                                  B. brought prosperity to the country
                                                                                                                                                  C. harmed fair market competition
                                                                                                                                                  D. boosted growth in states, revenue
                                                                                                                                                  39. Who are most likely to welcome the Supreme Court ruling ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. Internet entrepreneurs B. Big-chain owners
                                                                                                                                                  C. Third-party sellers D. Small retailers
                                                                                                                                                  40. In dealing with the Supreme Court decision Thursday, the author ________.
                                                                                                                                                  A. gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences
                                                                                                                                                  B. describes the long and complicated process of its making
                                                                                                                                                  C. presents its main points with conflicting views on them
                                                                                                                                                  D. cites some cases related to it and analyzes their implications
                                                                                                                                                  参考答案:CDCBA
                                                                                                                                                  Part B
                                                                                                                                                  Directions: The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs C and F have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
                                                                                                                                                      A. These tools can help you win every argument-not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. If we readjust our view of arguments--from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding---then we change the very nature of what it means to"win" an argument
                                                                                                                                                      B. Of course, many discussions are not so successful. Still. we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. We need to learn how to evaluate them properly. A large part of evaluation is calling out bad arguments, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. Humility requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.
                                                                                                                                                      C. None of these will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. Next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. Next time you talk with someone who takes a stand ask them to give you a reason for their view. Spell out their argument fully and charitably. Assess its strength impartially. Raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.
                                                                                                                                                      D. Carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. Like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. Even when you win, you end up no better off. Your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. Pairs of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. Everybody else loses. This kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.
                                                                                                                                                      E. In his 1936 work How to Win Pends and Influence People, Dale Carnegie wrote: “There is only one way... to get the best of an argument-and that is to avoid it.” This aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the firs place.
                                                                                                                                                      F. These views of arguments also undermine reason. If you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don’t get caught. You will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. You can call their views stupid or joke about how ignorant they are. None of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win-in one way.
                                                                                                                                                      G. There is a better way to win arguments. Imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and I do not. If you yell “Yes,” and I yell “No,” neither of us learns anything. We neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. In contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. Then I counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. Now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.
                                                                                                                                                  41 → 42 → F→ 43 → 44 → C → 45
                                                                                                                                                  参考答案:EDGBA
                                                                                                                                                  Part C
                                                                                                                                                  Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
                                                                                                                                                      46) There is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.
                                                                                                                                                      46) 医学期刊中存在大量由广播公司和新闻媒体报道的这种无稽之谈,这会导致健康恐慌和短暂的饮食狂热。
                                                                                                                                                  which引导定语从句;when引导的状语从句省略主语
                                                                                                                                                      47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.
                                                                                                                                                      47) 如今,任何申请研究职位的人都必须发表两倍于10年前同一职位所需的论文数量。
                                                                                                                                                  applying for...现在分词做后置定语,that引导定语从句
                                                                                                                                                      48) Attempts have been made to curb this kind tendency to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s published papers.
                                                                                                                                                      48) 人们已经做出努力来遏制这种倾向,即将一些质量和数量纳入申请人发表的论文的评估当中。
                                                                                                                                                  incorporate sth in/into sth 将某事物包括进去,包含,合并
                                                                                                                                                      49) This would be reasonable enough if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favors.
                                                                                                                                                      49) 如果不是因为科学家们可以很容易地在未来的出版物中引用自己,或者让同事为他们这样做以换取类似的好处,这将是合理的。
                                                                                                                                                  if it were...虚拟语气;the fact that...同位语从句
                                                                                                                                                      50) If we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions incentivize that kind of science.
                                                                                                                                                      50) 如果我们想认真确保科学既有意义又可再生,那么我们必须确保我们的制度可以激励这种科学的发展。
                                                                                                                                                  if引导条件状语从句;两个that引导的宾语从句
                                                                                                                                                  Section III Writing
                                                                                                                                                  Part A
                                                                                                                                                  51. Directions: Suppose you are working for the “Aiding Rural Primary School” project of your university, write an email to answer the inquiry from an international student volunteer, specifying the details of the project.
                                                                                                                                                  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
                                                                                                                                                  Do not use your own name in the email, use "Li Ming" instead. (10points)
                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                  参考范文:
                                                                                                                                                  Dear Student,
                                                                                                                                                      Thank you for participating in the “Aiding Rural Primary School” project of our university, and I am writing this email to answer your questions concerning the details of the project.
                                                                                                                                                      First, since the project is for rural Chinese students, it is better for you to speak fluent Mandarin, so that you can communicate with them conveniently. Second, the volunteer is supposed to be courteous, kind-hearted by nature, and sensible. In addition, the project will last for 4 weeks, so as a teacher to help them study, you should prepare the courses in advance.
                                                                                                                                                      Please feel free to contact me, if you have any questions. And it is certain that you will learn much through the project via helping others.
                                                                                                                                                  Yours,  
                                                                                                                                                  Li Ming
                                                                                                                                                  Part B
                                                                                                                                                  52. Directions:Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the picture below. In your essay, you should 1) describe the picture briefly, 2) interpret the meaning and 3) give your comments.
                                                                                                                                                  You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                  参考范文:
                                                                                                                                                      As an old saw has it, “Winners never quit and quitters never win”, which can summarize the intended meaning of the cartoon accurately. Two men are climbing the beautiful mountain together. Depressed, one man, sitting on the step, says “I’m so tired that I don’t want to climb”, while his partner comforts him and says “No. Take a rest and we’ll go on.”
                                                                                                                                                      Just as sunflowers never give up following the sun, we should never give up our determination of pursuing our dream. Whoever we are, young or old, healthy or not, we have the right to create a colorful world exclusive to us, only if we stick to our dreams and never quit. Even if the reality can tear our dreams into pieces, perseverance can be used as the glue to stick them together again. There should never be a word called “failure” in the dictionary of our life, there is only “not succeed yet”.
                                                                                                                                                      This cartoon reminds me of the famous words from Hemingway’s novel, The Old Man and the Sea: “A man can be destroyed but not defeated”. Examples are not difficult to find. It is with the spirit of perseverance that enables Edison to find the suitable material to be used in bulb after thousands of times of failure. If you have got a dream, go and get it. Never lose hope.
                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                  主题词:
                                                                                                                                                  persistence   n.
                                                                                                                                                  persistent    adj.
                                                                                                                                                  persist in     v.
                                                                                                                                                  insist on      v.

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